The simplest way to use straw is to return the land directly after crushing. This is also the most widely used and popularized mode in all regions. Due to the large-scale application of chemical fertilizers, the use of organic fertilizers is becoming less and less, which is not conducive to the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility. The crushed straw directly into the soil, can effectively improve the organic matter in the soil, enhance soil microbial activity, improve soil fertility. However, improper methods for returning straw to the fields can also cause various problems, such as the emergence of wheat and the increase of diseases. In response to these problems, it is necessary to pay attention to â€œone defense and two supplementsâ€ after the straw is returned to the field.
According to the test, under the general conditions, the crops are continuously planted after returning crops, and pests and diseases are aggravated. For example, in the north, the root rot of spring wheat is aggravated after wheat straw is returned to the field, and the total erosion of wheat is aggravated in the south; the soybean root rot and the rate of insect damage are increased after the soybean straw is returned to the field. Therefore, straw returning is more suitable to be based on crop rotation, so that the effect of straw return can be fully exerted. The return of straw to the field on the basis of crop rotation will not cause major pests and diseases. If the straw is returned to the field under continuous cropping, the method of straw ploughing and returning to the field may be considered, but straw ploughing and shallow returning to the field may not be used. At the same time, pest and disease control must be strengthened to ensure the high quality and yield of crops.
In addition, straw returning has enhanced microbial activity in the soil, accelerated the rate of degradation of herbicides in the soil, and shortened the residual period of the pesticide. Therefore, the application of chemical herbicides, etc., to soils that have been returned to the field, especially before sowing, should be appropriately increased.
Two supplements that make up the water and make up the nitrogen supplement water: soil moisture is good, and sufficient water is an important condition to ensure the microbial decomposition of straw. The land where the straw is returned to the field, because the soil is looser and requires more water, it should be watered early and filled with water to create a suitable environmental condition for microbial activity, so as to facilitate the decomposition and decomposition of the straw. Nitrogen fertilizers: The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in wheat, maize, and other grass crops is 80:1 to 100:1, whereas the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in soil microbial decomposition organics is 25:1 to 30:1. In other words, the straw needs to be supplemented with a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer after returning to the field. Otherwise, microbial decomposition of straw will inevitably compete with the crop for nitrogen and moisture in the soil, affecting normal crop growth. Therefore, in addition to normal fertilization, straw should also be applied with nitrogen fertilizer as early as possible. In general, the organic matter harvested by wheat and Corn accounts for 40%-50% of the total. In other words, 500 kg per mu wheat grain field, after the harvest can be more than 500 kg of straw, to adjust to the best decomposition of carbon and nitrogen ratio, the need to add additional urea 20-25 kg (or 15-15 per acre of base fertilizer application -15 compound fertilizer 100-150 kg) can achieve better results.
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