2. Mouthwash configuration This mode is a three-crop and intercropping pattern for one year. Each 1.33-2m is a combination. Broad bean is sowed every year in autumn, 1.33m is combined to grow 1 row of broad beans, 2m is combined to grow 2 rows of broad beans, small Row spacing is 0.4 meters, hole spacing is 0.2 meters, and 3 to 4 seeds are planted per hole; in the late March and early April of the following year, corn is planted between large rows of beans, and inter-maize intercropping is used as lentil; in early June, broad beans are sowed after corn harvesting. Soybeans.
3. Cultivation techniques (1) Broad beans. Qiwu No. 5 varieties were used, and 40 kg of super-basic calcium superphosphate was used. In the flourishing period of broad beans, 7.5 kg of urea was applied. From the beginning of flowering to full flowering period, 25% carbendazim WP can be used to prevent and control 60% of the water. Use 20 to 30 grams per acre to spray 40 kg of water to control aphids. (2) Spring corn. Select Suyu 20, 1.33 meters combined single line double plant, density 3500 per mu; 2 meters combined double line double plant, small row spacing 40 cm, density 4000 per mu. Basal fertilizer applies 50 kg of compound fertilizer per acre; joint fertilizer applies 750 kg of livestock manure or 20 kg of ammonium bicarbonate per acre, and roots are thrown down; 11 to 12 leaves spread fertilizer when spreading leaves, and ammonium bicarbonate is buried per acre. 50 kilograms, drought irrigation when drought. The main pest of corn is corn borer, which can be used for the prevention and control of corn pyrethroid pesticides during the corn flare season. (3) Lentils. Qidong Dabaipi can be used to sow at the same time as corn. It can also be planted between maize plants after emergence of corn. Generally, every 4 to 5-hole corn is used as a point of foreign lentils with 3 to 4 seeds per hole and 850 to 1000 per mu. The vine climbs on the corn stalk. The major insect pests of lentils include borer insects and aphids. The control of aphids uses 10% imidacloprid 10 grams to spray water 50 kilograms, and prevention and control of fruit insects uses 25.5% deltamethrin 25 milliliters of water and 60 kilograms of spray per acre. (4) Green soy beans. The Xiaohuang yellow variety was selected. After the broad beans were harvested in early June, 3 rows of green soybeans were planted in a combination of two meters of corn, and two rows of 1.33 meters were planted. The distance was 30 to 33 centimeters with 2 plants per hole. Base fertilizer applies 15 kg of compound fertilizer per acre, and 7.5 kg of urea can be applied at the beginning of the flowering period. In the period of listing young green soybeans, we use pyrethroid pesticides to control soybean borer; control snails to use 500 grams of honey per acre, place 3 to 5 grams of traps every 2 meters. (
Ventilator block diagram
One. Main mechanical ventilation modes
(1) Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV): positive pressure in the inspiratory phase and zero pressure in the expiratory phase. 1. Working principle: The ventilator generates positive pressure in the inspiratory phase and presses the gas into the lungs. After the pressure rises to a certain level or the inhaled volume reaches a certain level, the ventilator stops supplying air, the exhalation valve opens, and the patient's thorax Passive collapse of the lungs and exhalation. 2. Clinical application: Various patients with respiratory failure mainly based on ventilation function, such as COPD.
(2) Intermittent positive and negative pressure ventilation (IPNPV): the inspiratory phase is positive pressure and the expiratory phase is negative pressure. 1. How it works: The ventilator works both in the inspiratory and exhaled phases. 2. Clinical application: Expiratory negative pressure can cause alveolar collapse and cause iatrogenic atelectasis.
(3) Continuous positive pressure airway ventilation (CPAP): Refers to the patient's spontaneous breathing and artificial positive airway pressure during the entire respiratory cycle. 1. Working principle: Inspiratory phase gives continuous positive pressure air flow, and exhalation phase also gives a certain resistance, so that the airway pressure of inhalation and exhalation phases are higher than atmospheric pressure. 2. Advantages: The continuous positive pressure airflow during inhalation is greater than the inspiratory airflow, which saves the patient's inhalation effort, increases FRC, and prevents the collapse of the airway and alveoli. Can be used for exercise before going offline. 3. Disadvantages: great interference to circulation, large pressure injury of lung tissue.
(4) Intermittent command ventilation and synchronized intermittent command ventilation (IMV / SIMV) IMV: There is no synchronization device, the ventilator air supply does not require the patient's spontaneous breathing trigger, and the time of each air supply in the breathing cycle is not constant. 2. SIMV: There is a synchronization device. The ventilator gives the patient a commanded breath according to the pre-designed breathing parameters every minute. The patient can breathe spontaneously without being affected by the ventilator. 3. Advantages: It exerts its ability to regulate breathing while offline; it has less influence on circulation and lungs than IPPV; it reduces the use of shock medicine to a certain extent. 4. Application: It is generally considered to be used when off-line. When R <5 times / min, it still maintains a good oxygenation state. You can consider off-line. Generally, PSV is added to avoid respiratory muscle fatigue.
(5) Mandatory ventilation per minute (MMV) When spontaneous breathing> preset minute ventilation, the ventilator does not command ventilation, but only provides a continuous positive pressure. 2. When spontaneous breathing is less than the preset minute ventilation volume, the ventilator performs command ventilation to increase the minute ventilation volume to reach the preset level.
(6) Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) Definition: Under the prerequisite of spontaneous breathing, each inhalation receives a certain level of pressure support, increasing the patient's inhalation depth and inhalation volume. 2. How it works: The inspiratory pressure begins with the patient's inspiratory action, and ends when the inspiratory flow rate decreases to a certain level or the patient attempts to exhale hard. Compared with IPPV, the pressure it supports is constant, and it is adjusted by the feedback of the inspiratory flow rate. Compared with SIMV, it can get pressure support for each inhalation, but the level of support can be set according to different needs. 3. Application: SIMV + PSV: used for preparation before off-line, can reduce breathing work and oxygen consumption Indications: Exercise the ventilator; prepare before going offline; the ventilator is weak due to various reasons; severe flail chest causes abnormal breathing. 5. Note: Generally not used alone, it will produce insufficient or excessive ventilation.
(7) Volume Supported Ventilation (VSV): Each breath is triggered by the patient's spontaneous breathing. The patient can also breathe without any support and can reach the expected TV and MV levels. The ventilator will allow the patient to be truly autonomous Breathing also applies to preparations before going offline.
(8) Capacity control of pressure regulation
(IX) Biphasic or bilevel positive pressure ventilation How it works: P1 is equivalent to inspiratory pressure, P2 is equivalent to breathing pressure, T1 is equivalent to inspiratory time, and T2 is equivalent to exhalation time. 2. Clinical application: (1) When P1 = inspiratory pressure, T1 = inspiratory time, P2 = 0 or PEEP, T2 = expiratory time, which is equivalent to IPPV. (2) When P1 = PEEP, T1 = infinity, P2 = 0, T2 = O, which is equivalent to CPAP. (3) When P1 = inspiratory pressure, T1 = inspiratory time, P2-0 or PEEP, T2 = desired controlled inhalation cycle, equivalent to SIMV.
Positive Pressure Breathing Machine,Continuous Positive Pressure Ventilation,Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation,Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing Machine
Guangzhou Zhongzhinan Supply Chain Co.,Ltd. , https://www.gzzhongzhinan.com